It seems likely that since the UUID for /boot/efi has changed that you may need to generate a new initramfs image.
Boot to live media, mount the entire installed filesystem properly under /mnt (this includes /, /boot, /boot/efi, /home, and any other system filesystems you may have such as /var, etc) so the full tree is mounted.
Then properly do a chroot to /mnt and use dracut --force 5.17.2-300.fc36.x86_64 to regenerate the image with that kernel version.
I have that version kernel for fedora 36 since I am fully updated but your latest kernel may be different.
How about mounting the partition as /boot/efi, whose BDB(DBR) Label has been named ESP.
It is because the Normal Label and UUID could be changed, too;
FAT16 and FAT32 have BDB(DBR) Label, NTFS, btrfs, ext4 and so on have no.
Or disable auto-mount ESP just like Windows, Mac, Android x86, ChromeOS and so on.
If need be, users could mount ESP by gnome disk.
I honestly do not know in detail what is in the initramfs image.
I do know that it is an image of the system as it was when the relevant kernel was installed, and thus may depend upon the specific UUIDs of the partitions as well. It likely has a copy of the /etc/fstab file in that image as it was when the image was created and may depend upon that particular UUID to mount /boot/efi properly.
I don’t know for certain that is the case but logic leads me to that as a possibility.