Cannot boot Fedora after restarting mid-upgrade

I was in the process of upgrading to Fedora 31. I ran sudo dnf system-upgrade download --releasever=31 which downloaded all packages, but could not complete due to low disk space. I rebooted in order to resize disks from a live USB, but now I can’t boot back into Fedora.

When selecting the latest (Fedora 30) kernel version, I enter my LUKS password as normal, and then I see various services starting. However, after displaying the line Started GNOME Display Manager, nothing happens. Here’s an image of where it gets stuck:

I can’t reboot into the rescue kernel either: it just tells me that “the root account is locked.”

How can I proceed to save my system?

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