Best filesystem for a data partition?

I am wondering what is the best filesystem for a partition dedicated only for storing personal data (no games) on a 512gb nvme on fedora 39?

The default filesystem for your distro is generally a good choice unless you have an atypical use case because there is a better chance of bugs being discovered before they bite you.

Assuming you have good backup procedures in place, the two biggest concerns with filesystems are bugs and bitrot. Widely used filesystems should be relatively free of old bugs, but new bugs can appear with changes to hardware and kernels. Btrfs is designed to let you know when bitrot has occurred. I prefer to use a different filesystem for backups as it is unlikely that both will be hit by a bug at the same time.

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If you want to be on the safe side, in your use case, I personally would use use ext4 in a luks encrypted LVM volume.

Why? Because ext4 is old and stable as hell. No surprise to be expected.

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ext4 is the conservative choice. It will definitely work well.

btrfs is much newer, so many people don’t fully trust it yet (and there have been some issues in the past). But it seems to be in a very good shape nowadays, it’s even the default filesystem for Fedora Workstation, and we don’t see any avalanche of people with broken systems. The major benefit (at least for me) is that you can use btrfs scrub any time to check your data consistency. If it passes, you can rest assured that all your data are correct and not corrupted. Furthermore, at real time, any time a file is read, it’s checked for consistency. If it fails, you’ll get an I/O error. So read failures are never silent, you always know about it. (This isn’t the case with ext4 or similar filesystems. On ext4, if your failing hardware returns corrupted data, ext4 can’t detect it, and will behave as if everything is fine). So btrfs is great for detecting failing hardware and helps you prevent long-term silent corruption.

In both cases, of course, you should have backups, if you care about your data. But only btrfs will make sure you won’t overwrite your backup file with a corrupted new version of the file.

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Thanks for the explanation about the differences

where i can find more information about the differences between filesystems ? I searched on fedora docs but i didn’t find anything

Thanks @kparal indeed a good summary.

Would like to add the docs, to see how the layout of an automatic installation of a Workstation looks like:

Filesystems:

btrfs-assistant & snapper

And a Gui (Graphical User Interface) who helps you to manage a BTRFS Filesystem:
sudo dnf info btrfs-assistant

Description : Btrfs Assistant is a GUI management tool to make managing a Btrfs
filesystem easier.
…
Includes a management front-end for Snapper with enhanced restore functionality

sudo dnf info snapper

Description : This package contains snapper, a tool for filesystem snapshot management.

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