Update the BIOS/EFI firmware to the latest version.
The SATA mode can be labeled as RAID, or Intel RST, or Intel Rapid Storage Technology.
You should disable all of them if you see any, and switch to AHCI if possible.
when I try to install Fedora from the USB to the 200 GiB partition I made, I get following error:
Failed to find a suitable stage1 device: EFI System Partition must be mounted on one of /boot/efi.;EFI System Partion cannot be of type None.; …
If installing beside windows, and windows was installed with UEFI boot, then use custom install and mount the existing efi partition at /boot/efi as it says. If you are planning to use BTRFS or LVM then you will also need a small (~500 MB) partition as ext4 to mount at /boot.
What I would suggest, and it has worked for several people here, is to remove the 200G partition you created, then install in auto-partitioning mode. The installer will create its own partitions in the empty space and will automatically create /boot and use the existing efi partition as /boot/efi.