Can't boot after update

This could be a result of restarting the system with the power switch (long press?), but the original problem might be a symptom of a failing storage device.

Your first priority should be to make sure important data are backed up, by booting the Fedora Workstation Live Installer from USB and attempting to copy important files to a safe place. Use Gnome Disks to mount the btrfs filesytems in read-only mode to copy files.

The Gnome Disks utility also has drive health checks based on the S.M.A.R.T tools. If the drive is “healthy”, attempt repair as described inman btrfs-check.

Dangerous options:
–repair

Don’t see anything else obvious to use though

Yeah, I strongly suggest backing up whatever data you can and replacing that hard drive ASAP. At this point, attempting more FS repairs on a failing drive is more likely to result in more data loss. Get whatever data you need off of it before attempting any more recovery. Better yet, mount it read-only to another machine.

This is a good time to look into having cheap/spare HDD’s around. Some you can find online used come in handy for these situations. They serve better than many USB drives because their cache is larger and can be repurposed to use in an enclosure if need be. ( I personally own 40+ HDD for this same reason. )

Attempting to perform OS level repairs on a failing HDD is just pushing you towards the drive’s failure. The best thing to do is to move your data over to a new / repurposed drive.

I do not recommend cloning HDD’s in this situation because if the current drive has bad blocks they too can be “cloned” over to a new device.

Gnome disks shows disk is ok though

The best thing to do is to move your data over to a new / repurposed drive.

/home anything else?

/home is the big one. Beyond that depends on where else you might have stored data you want to retain.

How accurate is Gnome Disks smart data & Self Tests with regards Hard drive health?

After you have done the backup of your data so you are certain it is secure then you may want to continue with attempting to repair the file system. If that works then you may be OK.

Personally I would not depend upon gnome disks but rather would depend much more heavily upon the results of smartctl since that reads the data directly from the drive itself and displays it for the user.

I don’t know how gnome disks reads or interprets the data – as well as it being a gui. GUIs are notorious for only providing the data in the way the developer thought it would be needed and it usually is never as detailed as you can find using a command line tool

smartctl 7.2 2020-12-30 r5155 [x86_64-linux-5.15.0-76-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-20, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Family:     Phison Driven SSDs
Device Model:     KINGSTON SA400S37960G
Serial Number:    50026B77852ADE64
LU WWN Device Id: 5 0026b7 7852ade64
Firmware Version: SBFKZ1.3
User Capacity:    960,197,124,096 bytes [960 GB]
Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical
Rotation Rate:    Solid State Device
TRIM Command:     Available
Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
ATA Version is:   ACS-3 T13/2161-D revision 4
SATA Version is:  SATA 3.2, 6.0 Gb/s (current: 6.0 Gb/s)
Local Time is:    Wed Jan 31 05:45:17 2024 UTC
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x00)	Offline data collection activity
					was never started.
					Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.
Self-test execution status:      (  32)	The self-test routine was interrupted
					by the host with a hard or soft reset.
Total time to complete Offline 
data collection: 		(65535) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities: 			 (0x11) SMART execute Offline immediate.
					No Auto Offline data collection support.
					Suspend Offline collection upon new
					command.
					No Offline surface scan supported.
					Self-test supported.
					No Conveyance Self-test supported.
					No Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003)	Saves SMART data before entering
					power-saving mode.
					Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01)	Error logging supported.
					General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine 
recommended polling time: 	 (   1) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time: 	 (   2) minutes.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 16
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
  1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       4454
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       54
148 Unknown_Attribute       0x0000   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
149 Unknown_Attribute       0x0000   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
167 Write_Protect_Mode      0x0000   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
168 SATA_Phy_Error_Count    0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
169 Bad_Block_Rate          0x0000   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       14
170 Bad_Blk_Ct_Erl/Lat      0x0000   100   100   010    Old_age   Offline      -       0/12
172 Erase_Fail_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
173 MaxAvgErase_Ct          0x0000   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       6 (Average 3)
181 Program_Fail_Count      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
182 Erase_Fail_Count        0x0000   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
187 Reported_Uncorrect      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
192 Unsafe_Shutdown_Count   0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       45
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0022   028   040   000    Old_age   Always       -       28 (Min/Max 18/40)
196 Reallocated_Event_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
199 SATA_CRC_Error_Count    0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       524366
218 CRC_Error_Count         0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
231 SSD_Life_Left           0x0000   099   099   000    Old_age   Offline      -       99
233 Flash_Writes_GiB        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1052
241 Lifetime_Writes_GiB     0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1917
242 Lifetime_Reads_GiB      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       28151
244 Average_Erase_Count     0x0000   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       3
245 Max_Erase_Count         0x0000   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       6
246 Total_Erase_Count       0x0000   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       30208

SMART Error Log not supported

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num  Test_Description    Status                  Remaining  LifeTime(hours)  LBA_of_first_error
# 1  Extended captive    Interrupted (host reset)      00%      4454         -
# 2  Extended captive    Interrupted (host reset)      00%      4454         -
# 3  Extended offline    Completed without error       00%      4449         -
# 4  Extended offline    Completed without error       00%      4448         -

Selective Self-tests/Logging not supported

This is from the Linux Mint iso command line, do i need to do it directly from fedora command line?

I took the liberty of editing your smartctl post and inserted the preformatted text tags with the </> button on the toolbar so it shows up formatted as seen on screen and is much more readable with columns aligned.

The only item of note that I see there is the item 169 bad block rate of 14. and 199 the SATA CRC Error count of 524366.

Of those the CRC errors are most worrisome as that would tend to indicate a possibly bad cable or dirty connections. The bad blocks on a 1TB drive are minimal and it does not show any reallocations so probably can be ignored.

The data does show 45 unsafe shutdowns (192) of a total 54 power cycles (12) though. Unsafe shutdowns can cause data corruption.

As @computersavvy mentions, the command-line tool has more details:

192 Unsafe_Shutdown_Count   0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       45 

Unsafe shutdowns (e.g., long press of the the power key on many systems) can damage filesystems and should be avoided. When the GUI fails you may be able to safely shutdown using a console or ssh terminal session from another machine.

You the disk may be “heathy”, but there is no guarantee that you can recover the damaged filesystem. Your priority should be to get important data onto another disk (or two!) by mounting the problem disk in read-only mode. You can do that by booting a Live Distro USB or moving the drive to another system.

It is helpful to keep notes of configuration changes you make after installation: added packages, configuring ssh and http servers, etc. For many users, the important data are all kept inside /home/<username>.

Kept crashing, monitor wouldn’t come on so couldn’t get to console. How to shutdown/reboot safely without holding power button for future reference??

Gnome Disks relies on SMART. The thing about smartctl is it will show you the report from the last time it was successfully ran. However, if SMART wasn’t able to run because the drive is too far gone, smartctl will still tell you that it passed based on the last successful run. I had a drive with a crashed head that had to be forensically recovered still show PASS on smartctl. SMART is useful for detecting that a drive is likely to fail soon so you can plan for it, but it isn’t 100% reliable in letting you know that a drive has already gone off the cliff.

Note that the last run attempt was apparently unsuccessful:

Offline data collection status:  (0x00)	Offline data collection activity
					was never started.
					Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.
Self-test execution status:      (  32)	The self-test routine was interrupted
					by the host with a hard or soft reset.

The blinking _, usually means the system is running but there is problem with graphics. Sometimes you can get a text console (<Ctrl-Alt-N> for some value N from 1 to 6). If that fails, <Ctrl-Alt-Delete> should reboot, but you want to avoid just getting the same blinking _, so you need to boot something like a Fedora Live Installer USB drive.

The blinking is a recent thing., usually screen goes offr and doesn’t espond to ctrl alt FN